PREMIR is a blood test that screens for breast cancer in high risk women
PREMIR can be used to accurately detect Breast Cancer at a very early stage. PREMIR can facilitate screening for high risk women, who are not served by the current screening modality; mammography.
- Women with dense breasts about 30M
- Women with BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation about 400,000
- Women with family history of breast cancer about 800,000
About 4.4M (12%) of women require follow-up imaging or biopsy after mammogram screening, but 95% of these women do not have cancer
One 10ml tube of blood
Detection of breast cancer with high accuracy, earlier, and reducing unnecessary invasive testing and anxiety for the patient
A dense breast is when the breasts are composed of dense tissue for more than 50% of the breast area compared with the non-dense tissue (Fig. A).
50% of women have dense breast (~30m or more women in the United States) dense breasts are particularly common in younger women under the 60s.9
Women with dense breasts are more prone to getting false-positive results because the dense tissues block X-ray. Hence more likely to appear white which makes it difficult to distinguish from the tumor.
Also, dense breasts is an independent risk factor for having an increased rate of developing breast cancer.10
Cell growth in the normally hollow glandular structures is called hyperplasia (Fig.C).
Although atypical cells are abnormal, they are benign and not cancerous. The conditions are usually diagnosed after a needle biopsy of the breast.
Atypical hyperplasia is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the future, even if the atypia is surgically removed. The risk for breast cancer is 3 or 4 times the risk of the average woman.15
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is the presence of abnormal cells in the lining of the milk duct in the breast. (Fig. D) DCIS is the earliest form of breast cancer (stage 0) and is non-invasive cancer. If DCIS is left untreated, it has the potential to progress to an invasive cancer.16
Overall, DCIS accounts for 20% of all newly diagnosed breast cancers each year.17
DCIS is usually detected on a mammogram. When suspicious findings are seen, a breast biopsy is recommended.18
Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is the presence of atypical cells in the lobules of the breast which are the milk-producing glands at the end of breast ducts (Fig. E).
LCIS is not true cancer and is considered a high-risk lesion that increases the risk of developing invasive breast cancer.19
One estimate is that the lifetime risk of developing invasive breast cancer is 30-40% for women with LCIS, versus a lifetime risk of 12.5% for the average woman.20
LCIS is most often discovered as a result of a breast biopsy done for another reason, and usually does not cause symptoms or show up on a mammogram.21
Although LCIS is a relatively rare finding, it is seen in approximately 0.5% to 4% of benign breast biopsies.22
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